How to Hold a Baby
Support the baby's bottom and thigh with your hands and securely support the baby's head and neck in your arm.
How to Breastfeed and Burp Babies
Breastfeeding should be carried out at intervals of two or three hours. Even though providing babies with breast milk produced from their mothers is the most recommended method, breastfeeding should be avoided in the following cases: Mothers with HIV, gonorrhea, and HSV (herpes simplex virus); those suffering from chronic diseases (cancer, or other diseases), malnutrition, tuberculosis; those taking medication that may affect the health of their babies; those suffering from complications associated with delivery, such as mental disorders (depression), acute blood poisoning, and severe bleeding, etc.
If the amount of breast milk is insufficient, a mix of powdered formula and breast milk can be provided instead.
- Fill a sterilized feeding bottle with warm water (do not use barley tea), insert an accurate amount of powered formula, close the lid, and shake the bottle to dissolve the formula. The mother should taste several drops of the formula before feeding the baby in order to ensure that the temperature of the formula is fit for the baby.
- Support the baby to keep the baby's head in an upward position. Let the baby know that formula feeding would start by putting several drops of the formula on the baby's lip. The feeding bottle should remain perpendicular to the baby's mouth during the course of feeding to prevent the baby from swallowing air bubbles as a result of the bottle being slanted. Make sure that the nipple of the feeding bottle is in close contact with the baby's upper lip before inserting the nipple into the mouth to start feeding.
- Do not forget to burp the baby after formula feeding so that the air sucked in could be discharged.
- Dispose of the remaining formula and never give it again to the baby at a later time.
An appropriate type of nipple that can adjust the amount of formula consumed by the baby could be chosen after allowing the baby to suck several types of nipples in order to find out a nipple type fit for the baby. With the baby growing, use the same type of nipple used in the hospital where the baby was born, and try different types of nipples as the baby grows.
- Weight of babies, amount of formula, and feeding intervals
Weight of babies, amount of formula, and feeding intervals
||Amount of formula
feeding per day
Bathing a Baby and Taking Care of Umbilical Cord
First of all, check the baby's physical status prior to bathing in order to bathe the baby in good condition. Do not bathe the baby when the baby looks tired or cheerless without any specific reason, catches cold, or runs a fever.
After bathing, supply a sufficient amount of moisture to the baby or let the baby have a rest or put the baby to sleep.
Baby bathing should be performed on a daily basis during the summer time and three to five times per week in the wintertime.
- A baby bathtub, warm water (the water temperature should be between 38℃ and 41℃: the water should be felt tepid by the mother when the mother’s elbow is dipped in the water), new clothes, and a new diaper.
- Keep the room warm (with room temperatures ranging from 24℃to 27℃) and windtight.
- The baby’s thighs should be submerged underwater when the baby sits in the bathtub.
- The likes of baby bathing products and clothing that are needed for the baby should be ready ahead of bathing.
- Wrap around the baby with a towel in order for the baby not to feel cold. Then cradle the baby between the mother's arms and sides.
- Block the baby's ears with the first and second finger of the hand holding the baby's head.
- Wash the baby's face in order of the eyes, nose, mouth, ears, and neck. Then wash the hair with a small amount of soap. After washing the baby's hair, dry it with a dry towel.
- Wash the baby's back by securely supporting the baby's chest and tummy with the mother's entire palm and forearm.
- The mother's both hands should be placed under the baby's arm to securely hold the baby before washing the baby's chest and tummy. Take care to prevent the baby from slipping into the water.
- Wash the baby's arms, legs, and the genital region with clean water.
- Wipe off the water with a dry towel as soon as possible in order for the baby not to feel cold after bathing. Then change diapers and dress the baby.
Taking Care of the Umbilical Cord
- The umbilical cord usually falls off after being fully dried 7-10 days after birth. Do not use a bathtub and take care to prevent water from flowing into the umbilical cord while bathing if the umbilical cord hasn't fallen off or not been fully dried.
- The umbilical cord should not be contaminated with bacteria by keeping the diaper from being in contact with the baby's navel or removing risk factors that may stimulate the umbilical cord before it is fully dried or falls off.
Wrap the upper part of the diaper when changing diapers to prevent the diaper from irritating the baby's skin.
- Support the baby's bottom with one hand after removing the adhesive part of the wet diaper and remove the diaper with the other hand.
- Clean the baby's bottom and the genital region, starting from the navel to the back, in order to minimize the risk of infection.
- Support the baby by placing one hand deep between the baby's bottom and neck. Then place a new diaper with a cover under the baby's bottom.
Maintaining Optimal Room Temperature and Humidity Levels
- The optimal room temperature is between 24℃and 26℃. Properly dress the baby according to the current temperature in the room and seasonal changes.
- Appropriate humidity levels range from 40% to 60%. Install a mist humidifier or hang out the washing (such as wet towels) in the room to maintain desired humidity levels.
- Change the humidifier water frequently and turn the nozzle of the humidifier in the opposite direction from the baby in order to prevent mist from being sprayed over the baby's face.
- Ventilate the room frequently.
How to Take Care of a Baby's Eyes, Nose, Ears, Nails and Toenails
- Clean the areas around the baby's eyes from inside to outside using clean gauze or a wet towel.
- Wipe the baby's runny nose after securely holding the head and removing mucus from the nose by inserting a baby cotton swab into the halfway point in the nose. However, this should be done only at a pinch.
- Take care not to irritate the inner channels of the baby's ears. Use baby cotton swabs to clean the wet areas of the outer ears after bathing (inserting cotton swabs deep into the ear is dangerous and must be avoided under any circumstances).
- As babies are unable to properly control arm movements, they might inadvertently harm themselves while moving their arms. If the free edge of the nail measures 2-3 mm in length, cut the free edge in a straight line at a distance of about 1 mm from the nail plate.
- Use a baby nail clipper or nail scissors when trimming the baby's nails.
How to Measure a Baby's Body Temperature
- Temperatures ranging from 36.5℃to 37.5℃are considered normal for babies. Temperatures measured by digital thermometers may be higher than those measured with tympanic thermometers. However, if the body temperature exceeds 38℃, have the baby examined by a doctor.
How to Put a Baby to Sleep
- Prepare for baby bedding that is not too soft. We recommend putting newborns under one year of age to sleep on their backs to prevent SIDS (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome).
- As babies are unable to properly hold their heads up when they are lying on their tummies, parents must keep an eye on them whenever possible.
- Have your baby sufficiently breastfed to help the baby sleep in comfort.
- Keep the room dark and quiet when the baby sleeps.
- If the baby has trouble sleeping or settling, wrap the baby with a baby wrap.
How to Play with a Baby
- Make eye contact with your baby frequently and show the baby diverse, affectionate facial expressions.
- Talk to your baby as much as possible and give the baby sound-generating toys.
- Gently hug your baby and increase chances of close physical contact.
- Forging a bonding relationship between the baby and parents results in emotional stability.
What Makes Babies Cry?
- When babies feel hungry, they start crying with lip movements. They stop crying from the moment they start sucking their mothers’ breasts.
- If infantile colic causes your baby to cry, the symptom might naturally disappear over time. Therefore, don't be embarrassed and deal with the symptom without unnecessarily stimulating the baby.
- At times, your baby may cry when the diaper is wet or when the baby feels the room is too dry or stuffy. In addition, the baby may cry or whine when feeling sleepy.
- If your baby keeps crying even if the baby has been hugged and cuddled, consult a doctor after checking whether the baby looks pale or sick.
Regurgitation and Vomiting
- Regurgitation (spitting up) and Vomiting
- Regurgitation refers to the backward flow of the contents in the stomach to the mouth through the throat. Regurgitation often occurs in babies as their esophageal sphincters are not mature enough to prevent the backward flow of the food they intake.
Sometimes, regurgitated food in the mouth causes vomiting.
- For babies more prone to regurgitation, we recommend reducing the amount of food. Alternatively, burp them during breastfeeding and feed them in small quantities at regular intervals. Laying your baby sideways at 45 degrees helps reduce regurgitation after breastfeeding.
- Unlike regurgitation, vomiting is marked by spitting up the contents in a baby's stomach as a result of the relatively high constant pressure applied to the tummy.
- Remove the remaining vomitus inside the mouth after turning the baby's face sideways and place the head upwards to prevent foreign objects from entering the airway after vomiting.
- If vomiting lasts more than 12 hours or if the vomitus turns green or is mixed with blood, have the baby examined by a doctor.
- A hiccup is caused by an unintentional spasm of the diaphragm as a result of it not moving up and down in harmony with inspiratory and expiratory movements. Hiccupping usually disappears with time. However, if the baby suffers from a hiccup as a result of it lasting for an extended period of time, give the baby warm water or milk and make the baby cry by gently hitting the soles to halt hiccupping.
Sneezing and Sniffing
- Remove all foreign objects that might cause an itch or sneezing inside the nose. Dry environments, air conditioning, or common cold may cause sneezing.
- If the baby starts sniffing, increase humidity levels in the room to reduce the amount of the nasal discharge. Frequent use of nasal inhalants is not recommended as they might damage the nasal mucous membrane.
- Jaundice usually appears 2-3 days after birth and disappears within two weeks. Check the baby's skin tone by gently pressing the skin surface.
- The area where jaundice is easily observed is the baby's eyes. If the white of the eye turns yellow, consult a doctor in the immediate vicinity.
Level 1: Face Level 2: Body Level 3: Femoral region Level 4: Toe ends
- For level 3-4, have the baby examined by a pediatrician.
Diarrhea and Diaper Rash
- If the baby has loose stools 6-8 times a day, it can be seen as a sign of diarrhea. However, loose stools are usually observed while breastfeeding.
If the baby has no problem moving the body or does not lose weight, the baby might be okay. However, if the following symptoms are observed, have the baby examined by a doctor in no time: Bloody excrement, diarrhea accompanied by vomiting, and dehydration (e.g.: dry skin, hollow anterior fontanelle, a decrease in the amount of urine, etc.).
- Not changing diapers for an extended period of time or a diaper left unattended until it gets too wet may result in a diaper rash. If the baby suffers from diarrhea, change diapers on a regular basis, and clean and dry the affected area. We recommend exposing the area with rashes in the air without having the baby diapered.
If the symptom deteriorates, have the baby checked by a pediatrician.
- The normal body temperature for babies is between 36.5℃and 37.5℃. Although body temperatures measured in the ear using digital thermometers are generally high, the baby's body temperature should not exceed 38.0℃.
- Since babies are easily affected by ambient temperature, too high room temperatures or dressing them in layers may increase their body temperature. In addition, their body temperature may rise after crying. If a fever persists even after eliminating possible causes in the surroundings, have the baby examined by a doctor.
- How to control body temperature
- Clean the baby's body with a towel soaked in warm water and give the baby enough water (the body temperature drops as the moisture on the skin evaporates).
- Cyanosis may occur in babies with their lips and noses turned blue after vomiting or quick breastfeeding or experiencing chills. Apnea accompanied by cyanosis can be easily treated by giving the baby weak stimuli.
However, if the symptom persists, the baby must be examined by a doctor.
- If the baby starts quivering, be sure to pay attention to the baby and give a hug while minimizing stimulation. If the symptom persists or any of the followings is observed, have the baby examined by a doctor in no time: Lip twitching, weird body movements looking like riding a bicycle, quadriplegia, apnea, cyanosis, localized lethargy, generalized seizures, etc.
- It is common to see newborns quivering their arms or chins without any specific reason. This usually occurs when they exhibit very active movements.
- If whitish spots similar to clotted milk are found on the baby’s tongue or around the plate or inside the cheek and if they are not rubbed off, they can be seen as a sign of thrush.
- Thrush is an infection of the mouth caused by the candida fungus and can be treated with antifungal drugs. If a diaper rash is discovered at this point, it can be treated with medication simultaneously.
- Once used, all nipples must be sterilized in boiling water before reuse.
- For breastfeeding, we recommend treating the mother and the baby at the same time.
If you have any questions, please contact us at the following phone numbers.
The Neonatal Intensive Care Center at Wonkwang University Hospital 063) 859-1506 / 1507